Medical training: Simulation center

A simulation center is a specialized area in a health education building, medical center or educational institution that is designed for medical simulation. Healthcare organizations simulate activities in these centers, which may include some or all of the following: use of life as mannequins with different levels of complexity (human patient simulation), virtual reality computer animations, specialized trainers for multiple practice of medical interventions ( task trainers) and participants trained to behave and respond as patients (standardized patients). In Europe, these schools are called simulation centers. The simulation centers vary in size depending on the educational goals of the specific institution in which the center is located and the budget for construction, operation and staff of the center. Typically, the simulation center will have a simulation room with at least one manikin, an observation room that can be remote, but where students who do not participate in the simulation can observe the process, and a viewing room where activities are discussed.

Simulation center and types of simulation patients

A simulation center may have any or all of the following types of simulation. 1. Simple anatomical models that allow repeated practice, such as insertion or placement of a catheter. 2. Simulators of human patients – a range of mannequins that mimic the human body. This type of simulation usually involves a scenario involving a specific medical situation, such as cardiac arrest. The scenario is followed by an exam period, which is sometimes held in the same room as the simulation, but is often held in a separate room (also known as a viewing room). Additional learners can watch the script live or through streaming visible electronically. 3. Highly specialized manikins with multiple moving parts and functions that are more like human physiology, such as birth simulators, which allow obstetricians, midwives and nurses to practice normal delivery and difficult or life-threatening deliveries, such as shoulder dystocia or postpartum hemorrhage. 4. Standardized patients – Specially trained individuals who mimic various medical conditions. Standardized patients are often used for medical examinations of students. 5. Surgical simulators – highly specialized simulators for surgeons to practice specific skills, such as laparoscopic and ultrasound trainers. 6. Virtual reality simulators – life-like computer simulations in which the learner must respond to a given clinical situation.

Human patient simulator

A human patient simulator is a life-like manikin designed to react physiologically as if the product were a real-life patient. This is possible because constantly evolving technology has made it possible to produce computer software that can be integrated into mannequins. Computer software allows human patient simulators to reproduce normal and abnormal bodily responses for educational and training purposes. Often these reactions are triggered by a number of physical events that occur, such as an asthma attack. Therapeutic interventions can also be replicated in certain circumstances, including those that present a side effect of the drug.

High-tech human patient simulator / mannequins

Манекените, които най-много приличат на човешката анатомия, са обозначени като манекени с висока вярност. Статичен манекен с много ограничена функционалност е обозначен като ниска точност. Манекените с ниска степен на вярност, известни също като обучители на задачи, могат да се използват за многократна практика на клинични умения като поставяне на катетър или грижи за рани. Повечето манекени с висока вярност имат разширяващи се функции, които дишат, имат променлив пулс и тонове, измеримо кръвно налягане и осезаеми пулси. Те се различават в техните конкретни компоненти, но могат да включват дисплеи на EKG, пулсов оксиметър, артериални вълни, форми на белодробната артерия и анестетични газове. На манекените могат да се извършват различни процедури като вентилация с маска на торбата, интубация, дефибрилация, поставяне на гръдните тръби, крихотиротомия и други. Обикновено симулаторите на висококачествени пациенти са компютърни, съдържат хидравлика и компресори и имат външни монитори, които показват различни физиологични функции. Много манекени са съчленени, променят цвета си, проявяват гърчове, говорят и плачат. Някои висококачествени симулатори са много специализирани като травматични манекени със силно повредени или липсващи крайници, манекени за раждане, които имитират жена по време на раждане и раждане, новородени или недоносени бебета и по-малки педиатрични манекени.  

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